(HV) Unit 1.1

Q.1         What do you mean by the term value education.
Ans. Values education is a term used to name several things, and there is much academic controversy surrounding it. Some regard it as all aspects of the process by which teachers (and other adults) transmit values to pupils. Others see it as an activity that can take place in any organisation during which people are assisted by others, who may be older, in a position of authority or are more experienced, to make explicit those values underlying their own behaviour, to assess the effectiveness of these values and associated behaviour for their own and others long term well-being and to reflect on and acquire other values and behaviour which they recognise as being more effective for long term well-being of self and others.
This means that values education can take place at home, as well as in schools, colleges, universities, offenders institutions and voluntary youth organisations. There are two main approaches to values education. Some see it as inculcating or transmitting a set of values which often come from societal or religious rules or cultural ethics . Others see it as a type of Socratic dialogue where people are gradually brought to their own realisation of what is good behaviour for themselves and their community.
Definitions: -
There has been very little reliable research on the results of values education classes, but there are some encouraging preliminary results.
This means that there are many definitions. One definition refers to it as the process that gives young people an initiation into values, giving knowledge of the rules needed to function in this mode of relating to other people, and to seek the development in the student a grasp of certain underlying principles, together with the ability to apply these rules intelligently, and to have the settled disposition to do so Some researchers use the concept values education as an umbrella of concepts that includes moral education and citizenship education Themes that values education can address to varying degrees are character, moral development, Religious Education, Spiritual development, citizenship education, personal development, social development and cultural development.
There is a further distinction between explicit values education and implicit values education where:
* explicit values education is associated with those different pedagogies, methods or programmes that teachers or educators use in order to create learning experiences for students when it comes to value questions. 
* Implicit values education on the other hand covers those aspects of the educational experience resulting in value influence or learning, which can be related to the concept of hidden curriculum. 
This discussion on implicit and explicit raises the philosophical problem of whether or not an unintentional action can be called education. Similarly one should clarify the distinction between a teacher and an educator. 
In short value education is required to correctly identify our basic aspirations, understand the value that enable us to fulfil our basic aspiration, ensure the complementarity of values and skills, and to properly evaluate our beliefs. It also facilitates the development of appropriate technology and its right utilisation for human welfare.

Q.2         What is the need for value education.
Ans. Education is a methodical effort towards learning basic facts about humanity. And the core idea behind value education is to cultivate essential values in the students so that the civilization that teaches us to manage complexities can be sustained and further developed. It begins at home and it is continued in schools. Everyone accepts certain things in his/her life through various mediums like society or government.
Value education is important to help everyone in improving the value system that he/she holds and put them to use. Once, everyone has understood their values in life they can examine and control the various choices they make in their life. One has to frequently uphold the various types of values in his life such as cultural values, universal values, personal values and social values.
Thus, value education is always essential to shape one’s life and to give him an opportunity of performing himself on the global stage. The need for value education among the parents, children, teachers etc, is constantly increasing as we continue to witness increasing violent activities, behavioral disorder, lack of unity in the society etc. 
The family system in India has a long tradition of imparting value education. But with the progress of modernity and fast changing role of the parents it has not been very easy for the parents to impart relevant values in their wards. Therefore many institutes today conduct various value education programs that are addressed to rising problems of the modern society. These programs concentrate on the development of the children, young adults etc. focusing on areas like happiness, humility, cooperation, honesty, simplicity, love, unity, peace etc.

Q.3.          Elaborate on the basic guidlines for value education.                         (09-10, 11-12)
Ans. There are effective and widely acceptable guidlines of value education which decide on what would qualify as an appropriate input in value education.
1. Universal: -
We should use value education universally to all human beings and be true at all time and places. We should try to make it broad and need not restrict itself to a certain sect, creed, nationalify. So it has to deal with universal human values.
2. Rational: -
It has to be amenable to reasoning and not based on dogmas or blind beliefs. It is only based on truth and good values. It cannot be a set of religious discourse or Do’s and Don’ts.
3. Natural and varifiable: -
We want to learn something that is natural to us and being natural. When we live on the basis of natural values, it leads to fulfilment, happiness and also is conductive to other people we interact  with, as well as with nature. We will also want to verify these values to find out whether they are true for us.
3. All Encompassing: -
Value education is not merely an academic exercise. It is aimed at transforming our consciouness and living. Hence, it has to permeate into all dimensions of our living, namely, thought, behaviour, work and understanding / realization; as well as all levels, namely individual, family, society and nature.
4. Leading To Harmony: -
From value education we can live in harmony within and in harmony with others. These values lead to harmony in us and harmony in our interaction with other human beings and the rest of nature.

Q.4.        Write the content of value education and describe the process of value education.
Related Questions -
Q.         What should be the content of value education to make it complete.
Ans. The contents of value education are: -
* All dimensions - thought, behaviour, work and realization, and 
*  All levels of human living - individual, family, society, nature / exitence of human living.
Accordingly, the content of value education will be to understand myself, my aspirations, my happiness; understand the goal of human life comprehensively; understand the orther entities in nature, the innate inner-connectedness, the co-existence entirety. Hence it has to encompass understanding of harmony at various levels, namely, individual, family, society, nature and existence, and finally, learning to live in accordance with this understanding by being vigilant to one’s thought, behaviour and work.
The process of value education: -
Value education can be communicated in multiple ways in a student friendly manner.
There are some different ways to learn good skills of value education -
1. Individual learning: -
This approach focuses on the specific learning needs to each student. This provides active learning and makes it more meaningful and interesting. The student is promoted to participate in organization of learning and select the pace of learning. This individual approach makes the student more responsible besides being motivational. The teacher can also supplement and complement the varying value orientations provided by the family of the student.
2. Project learning: -
In this effective modern method the content is tactfully classified and transformed into project tasks. This helps the students to harness their creativity and sharpen their problem solving capabilities. This teaches the concept of self discipline, tolerance and co-operation.
3.Group learning: -
The group learning process is highly useful as it fosters team building skills. This makes the students understand the importance of two way communication, co-operation, collaboration and co-ordination among the various members of the group.
4. Open learning: -
This stem from the reformation-oriented school of thought. This approach fills the various gaps noticed in the traditional education system. This helps the students to develop the special parts of the learning contents both individually and as a group.
This learning brings benefits to the whole society.
5. Experience (Anubhava): -
The direct experience of a person is known as his anubhava. People learn many things in life through experience. Anubhava represent direct perception. This experiential learning is a great eye opener for many.

Q.5.         How do values related to our day to day living.                                           (2010 - 11)
Ans. Values form the basis for all our thoughts, behaviour and actions. Once we have known what is valuable to us, these values become the basis, the anchor for our actions. We know what we are doing is right and will lead to the fulfilment of our basic aspirations. Values thus become the source for our happiness, our success, our fulfilment. Without an apppriate value framework, we will not be able to decide whether a chosen action is desirable or undesirable, right or wrong. Hence there is a prime need for correct understanding of the value domain. When we live with the correct understanding of values, we are happy in continuity, otherwise we feel deprived, frustrated and unhappy.

Q.6.       What do you understand by self-exploration ? Where does it take place - Self or Body ?                                                                                                                        (2009 - 10)
Related Questions - 
Q.      What is self exploration ? Write the contents of self exploration and describe the process of self exploration.
Ans. Self exploration is a process of self evolution through self-investigation, knowing one self and knowing the entire existence. by this we can recognize human conduct human character and living accordingly. It is also a process of identifying our Innateness (svatva) and moving towards self organization (swatantrata) and self-expression (swarajya) and to live in harmony.
Self exploration consists of the critical assessment of our values, personality and skills so it take place in self.
1. Values: -
Though the choices are many, each has its own demanding requirements. The values which we may look for in a job is presented here. Remuneration, flexible working hours, balancing with family needs, apportunity for growth, independence, job satisfaction, contribution to society, creativity, nature of work, minimal work stress, regular work routine, sensitive to family issues, team building, organizational culture.
2. Personality: -
We have to choose that type of career which matches our overall personality. A list of question is given here for this purpose -
· What type of working environment that I really enjoy?
· Do I like to work under tough time schedules?
· How do I make a proper decision?
· How would I fulfil an assigned task to me?
· Can I do things confidently on my own?
· Do I have a vision for the future?
3. Skills: -
We need to identify our current skills and have to plan that type of skills we would be interested, try to improve it. There are some skills -
Abstracting, advertising, advising, auditing, Budgeting, consulting, controlling, creative arts, creative writing, data analysis, debating, editing, enttertaining, event managment, forecasting, investigating, marketing physical activities, problem solving, public relations, quality assurance, service, visualizing etc.
The process of self exploration: -
Se1f exploration for problem-solving is an impartial and objective assessment from within a person. 
The process of self exploration consists of the following six key steps:
1. Possess the right Mental attitude - 
This is the fundamental and basic step. Only with a right mental framework any objective assessment, examination or critical enquiry is possible. Observe the difference between various thoughts, sensations, emotions and actions. Keeping an open mind is the starting point. Be non-judgmental in your approach and do not get bogged down by emotions.
2. Identify and examine the problematic situations - 
Identify and recognize the existence of problems and issue. Explore and get a clear understanding of the surrounding situations. Focus on the timing of the events, their sequence and patterns of events.
3. Pursue the deeper emotions - 
Pursue the deeper emotions by delving into them intrinsically. Analyze and get clear insights into the predominant emotions.
4. Discern the connectivity with the emotions -
Examine the emotions, inquire from within and arrive at the interrelationship and  interconnectivity among the emotions.  Spot the ideas, images or words which are crearte the emotions. Identify associated situations from memory which generated the same type of emotion. 
5. Determine the intrinsic beliefs and values -
Determine the intrinsic beliefs and values associated with the predominant emotions. Make a careful assessment of all underlying assumptions including the associated environment.
6. Draw the boundaries of responsibility -
Though normally you may begin with the assumption, it is caused by external problems, many a time, on further exploration, you may find yourself responsible for the same.
Through the process of self exploration, a person can control his emotions and attain inner peace, harmony and happiness.

Q.7. What do you mean by your natural acceptance?                                               (2011 - 12)
Related Questions -
Q. What is natural acceptance? Name a few human values that you could verify to be naturally acceptable.                                                                                                             (2010 - 11)
Q. Give two examples to illustrate the Natural Acceptance in a human being.    (2013 - 14)
Ans. Natural Acceptance: -
Natural acceptance does not change with time. It reamins invarient. For example, our acceptance for trust or respect does not change with age.
It does not depend on the place. At any place our natural acceptance would still be the same. It does not depend on our beliefs or past conditionings. We may trust all the people who related to other religions or casts. No matter how deep our belief or past conditioning.
This natural acceptance is constantly there., something we can refer to. Think of cheating or exploiting someone, we sense a contradiction within and feel unhappy that very instant! It happens very quickly.  
Natural acceptance is the same for all of us. It is part and parcel of every human beings, it is part of humanness.
In short, 
Natural acceptance is there in all of us. It is within us, all the time and we can refer to its access it to know what is right for us. We only have to start referring to it. Each proposal needs to be evaluated on the basis of our natural acceptance.
There are some human values that could be naturally acceptable - Trust, happiness, respect, desire etc.

Q.8. Explain what is self validation.
Realted Questions -
Q.     What is meant by experiential validation? Why is it a necessary part of self-exploration?                                                                                                                     (2012 - 13)
Ans. Experiential validation refers to assessment, acceptance and affirmation of truth from out of one’s own experience. This represents the attestation of reality based on practical and pragmatic exposure. The value experience emerges out of altered state of consciousness which transcends the material plane and ventures into the transcendental realms. These value are powerful, relevant and meaningful as they relate to key concepts like unity of life and ecological ethics.
Self exploration will also include verifying the proposals through experiential validation, i.e., by living according to them. Experiential validation will ascertain that when we live our life on the basis of this education, our liviing will be fulfilling to us as well as our surroundings.

Q.9.   How self assesment is helpful for achieving a good carrer.
Ans. Self-assessment involves identifying and understanding your interests, skills, and values as a foundation for career decision making, planning and action. Assessing and understanding your interests, skills and values is the first step in identifying the career path that is right for you. There’s a big difference between getting a job and pursuing a career you love. Research has shown that individuals who choose careers that are closely aligned with their interests, skills and values tend to be more satisfied in their jobs and enjoy greater career success. The self-assessment process is important, not only in pursuing your first internship or job after college, but throughout your life as you move forward in your career.

Q.10. What do you mean by interest and how do you find it.
Ans. Interests are those activities you enjoy doing. Interest in the work you perform is a key motivating factor for work. Those who are interested in their work will find it more enjoyable, be more motivated to learn about it, develop relevant skills, work hard and persevere when the job becomes challenging. All of these factors will increase your chances of success and job satisfaction.
Interests Questions 
* What do you do well?
* What are your favorite sections of the library or bookstore?
* When reading newspapers, magazines, surfing the Internet, or watching television, which issues/topics are you naturally drawn to?
* What are your favorite classes?
* What activities or hobbies do you like to do in your spare time?
* What are the most interesting jobs you can think of?
* If money were no object, how would you make a living? How would you spend your time?
* What kinds of things are you doing when you lose track of time?
* If you won the lottery, to which causes/issues would you give the money?
* If you were a reporter, what kinds of stories would you write?
* What kinds of information do you find most fascinating?
* What do you love to do?
* Of all of the people you know, who do you think has the most interesting job?
* Who are your heroes?
* What would you do if there was nothing to hold you back?
* What did you dream of being when you were 10?