Solution Of Industrial Psychology Year 2014 - 15

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Solution Of Year 2014 - 15

Q.1. What is job satisfaction.                                                       (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.3. page no. 28.

Q.2. Write a short note on MBO. Discuss its benefits.                                               (2014 - 15)
Ans. Definition: - 
Management by Objectives (MBO) is a personnel management technique where managers and employees work together to set, record and monitor goals for a specific period of time. Organizational goals and planning flow top-down through the organization and are translated into personal goals for organizational members. The technique was first championed by management expert Peter Drucker and became commonly used in the 1960s. Key Concepts: -
The core concept of MBO is planning, which means that an organization and its members are not merely reacting to events and problems but are instead being proactive. MBO requires that employees set measurable personal goals based upon the organizational goals. For example, a goal for a civil engineer may be to complete the infrastructure of a housing division within the next twelve months. The personal goal aligns with the organizational goal of completing the subdivision. MBO is a supervised and managed activity so that all of the individual goals can be coordinated to work towards the overall organizational goal. You can think of an individual, personal goal as one piece of a puzzle that must fit together with all of the other pieces to form the complete puzzle: the organizational goal. Goals are set down in writing annually and are continually monitored by managers to check progress. Rewards are based upon goal achievement. 
Advantages: -
MBO has some distinct advantages. It provides a means to identify and plan for achievement of goals. If you don't know what your goals are, you will not be able to achieve them. Planning permits proactive behavior and a disciplined approach to goal achievement. It also allows you to prepare for contingencies and roadblocks that may hinder the plan. Goals are measurable so that they can be assessed and adjusted easily. Organizations can also gain more efficiency, save resources, and increase organizational morale if goals are properly set, managed, and achieved. 
Disadvantages: -
However, MBO is not without disadvantages. Application of MBO takes concerted effort. You cannot rely upon a thoughtless, mechanical approach, and you should note that some tasks are so simple that setting goals makes little sense and becomes more of silly, annual ritual. For example, if your job is snapping two pieces of a product together on an assembly line, setting individual goals for your work isn't really necessary. Rodney Brim, a CEO and critic of the MBO technique, has identified four other weaknesses. There is often a focus on mere goal setting rather than developing a plan that can be implemented. The organization often fails to take into account environmental factors that hinder goal achievement, such as lack of resources or management support. Organizations may also fail to monitor for changes, which may require modification of goals or even make them irrelevant. Finally, there is the issue of plain human neglect - failing to follow through on the goal.

Q.3. What do you mean by job enrichment?                                           (2014 - 15) Ans. Go through Q.6 page no. 30.

Q.4. State the features of type A and type B personalities.                                       (2014 - 15)
Ans. The Type A personality is the individual often eulogized by industry. She/he is prone to excessive competitiveness and impatience. Such people struggle all the time – always feeling pressure to meet some sort of deadline imposed by themselves, if not their boss. They work overtime a great deal and seldom take vacations. A subset of these individuals, often labeled “workaholics”, focus much, it not all, of their mental energy on their jobs. Type A individuals are usually insecure but very achievement-oriented. Their insecurity, results in an irresistible urge to constantly remind themselves and others of their previous achievements. Awards, diplomas, and trophies are common fixtures in their homes and offices. Moreover, these people tend to be very angry individuals, although this hostility may well be at an unconscious level, perhaps only surfacing, like the tip of an iceberg, in their cut-throat business tactics. These individuals are quite concerned about numbers, e.g., number of customers, amount of money earned, number of cars owned. They manifest a great deal of tension constantly, with tight musculature and perhaps more than occasional tics or muscle cramps. They have more adrenalin pumping though their bodies than Type B personalities. The daily caffeine intake of Type A personalities is 50% greater than that of Type B persons.
Very simply put, Type B individuals have the inverse characteristics. They are not concerned with time or numbers or awards. They do poorly under stress. They are more sociable. Whereas Type A’s want to be included and liked by others, they will often not include other people in their own activities, as will Type B folk. The Type B person finds it easier to express and receive affection.

Q.5. What is THERBLIG? Explain.                                                  (2014 - 15) Ans. Go through Q.16 page no. 39.
Q.6. Define stress. Briefly discuss the nature of stress.                                           (2014 - 15)
Ans. Stress: - 
Stress is a person’s adaptive response to a stimulus that places excessive psychological and physical demands on him or her. According to this definition, stress is induced by a physical or psychological stimulus known as stressor. Stressor create stress when pressure is greater than resource or when the demand exceeds the person’s ability to respond. 
Based on its nature stress can be classified into two types - (i) Positive stress (Eustress) (ii) Negative stress (Distress)
Positive stress (Eustress): -
Eustress is a word consisting of two parts. The prefix is derived form the greek eu - meaning either ‘well’ or ‘good’. When attached to the word stress, it literally ‘good stress’. Eustress accompanies achievement and exhilaration. Example of Eustress can be - (i) meating or engaging in a challenge. (ii) Comming first in a race (iii) Getting a promotion at your job (iv) Watching a suspense or horror movie (v) Love marraige or child birth (vi) Ridding a roller coaster (vii) The holidays (viii) Purchasing something, such a new car. 
Negative stress (Distress): -
It is the negative stress which results when a person is unable to completely adapt to stressors and results in various inappropriate behaviours  such as aggression, passivity, insecurity, helplessness, desperation etc. People under constant distress are more likely to become sick, mentaly or physically. Example of distress are (i) difficult work environment (ii) Overwhelming sights and sounds (iii) Thread of personal injury (iv) Work under constant pressure.

Q.7. Discuss the nature and scope of Industrial Psychology.                                     (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.1. page no. 1.

Q.8. Discuss the various sources of recruitment of employees. What are the merits and demerits of internal sources of recruitment?                                                                             (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.11  sol. (2011 - 12).
Internal Sources of Recruitment: -
The internal sources of recruitment are:-
Promotions - Promotion means to give a higher position, status, salary and responsibility to the employee. So, the vacancy can be filled by promoting a suitable candidate from the same organisation.
Transfers - Transfer means a change in the place of employment without any change in the position, status, salary and responsibility of the employee. So, the vacancy can be filled by transferring a suitable candidate from the same organisation.
Internal Advertisements - Here, the vacancy is advertised within the organisation. The existing employees are asked to apply for the vacancy. So, recruitment is done from within the organisation.
Retired Managers - Sometimes, retired managers may be recalled for a short period. This is done when the organisation cannot find a suitable candidate.
Recall from Long Leave : The organisation may recall a manager who has gone on a long leave. This is done when the organisation faces a problem which can only be solved by that particular manager. After he solves the problem, his leave is extended.
Merits of Internal Sources
The benefits / advantages / merits of using internal sources of recruitment:-
It is time saving, economical, simple and reliable. There is no need of induction training because the candidate already knows everything about the organisation, the work, the employee, the rules and regulations, etc.
· It motivates the employees of work hard in order to get higher jobs in the same organisation.
· It increases the moral of the employees and it improves the relations in the organisation.
· It reduce executive turnover.
· It develops loyalty and a sense of responsibility.
Demerits of Internal Sources
The limitations / demerits of using internal sources of recruitment -
· It prevents new blood from entering the organisation. New blood brings innovative ideas, fresh thinking and dynamism into the organisation.
· It has limited scope because it is not possible to fill up all types of vacancies from within the organisation.
· The position of the person who is promoted or transferred will be vacant.
· There may be bias or partiality in promoting or transferring persons from within the organisation.
· Those who are not promoted will be unhappy.
· The right person may be promoted or transferred only if proper confidential reports of all employees are maintained. This involves a lot of time, money and energy.

Q.9. What do you understand by Job Analysis? What is its importance in the managment of human resources?                                                                                             (2014 - 15) Ans. Go through Q.10 sol. 2011 - 12 and Q.6. page no. 46.

Q.10. Explain in brief Maslow’s motivation theory.                             (2014 - 15) 
Ans. Go through Q.2. page no. 27.

Q.11. What do you understand by Organizational Culture? Describe the nature and significance of a good organizational culture.                                                              (2014 - 15)
Ans. Organizational Culture: -
Culture consists of beliefs & behavior. It is cultivated behavior in the sense that it is learnt from the other members of the society. Organizational culture is the totality of beliefs, customs, traditions & values shared by the members of the organization. Organizational culture stress on sharing of norms & values that guide the organizational members’ behavior. These norms & values are clear guidelines as to how employees are to behave within the organization& their expected code of conduct outside the organization.
Nature Of Orgational Culture: -
The main features of organizational culture are as follows:-
· Like an individual, every organization has its own personality.
· The personality of the organization defines the internal environment of an organization.
· It differentiates an organization from the others.
· It is relatively enduring or stable over time.
· It exercises a significant influence on the attitudes, behavior and performance of organizational members.
Role And Significance Of Organizational Culture: -
Each organization is recognized by its culture. Whenever people name an organization, the culture attached to the organization is immediately recalled. One organization is different from other organizations because of cultural values, beliefs and norms. 
Following are the functions performed by Organizational Culture -
Organizational culture creates the boundary beyond which no employees are allowed to go. They automatically observe the organizational standards and norms of behavior.
An organization is well recognized by its culture. The culture of an organization provides its stability. People like to continue with the organization. Employees, customers, financers & other related persons like to remain with the organization.
The social recognition of the organizational culture makes the organization grow and develop in all ways.
Organizational culture acts as a motivator that guides & controls the employees. Satisfied employees get more spirit & enthusiasm for performing their jobs.
The attitude & behavior of the employees are directed towards the achievement of goals through a sound culture. Disciplined employees make other employees disciplined and well-behaved.
Culture gives rise to a positive attitude & behavior which are again an addition to culture. Culture leads to good behavior & good behavior makes good culture which is useful for better behavior. Both employees and the organization enjoy culture.

Q.12. Discuss the nature of groups in an organization. What are the kinds of groups usually formed?                                                                                    (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.11 page no. 35 and Q. 12. page no. 35.

Q.13. Management has been defined as the technique of executive leadership. Discuss the nature and significance of leadership in Industry.                                                     (2014 - 15)
Ans. Significance Of leadership: -
1. Leadership envolve other people - Employees are follower. It also envolves the willingness of employees/followers to accept direction from the leader. Group members help define the leader’s status and make the leadership process possible. The leadership quality of a manager would be irrelevant if there is no group of follower.
2. Leadership envolves unequal distribution of power between leader and the group members. Where does the power come from? There are five basis of power of managers - reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, referent power and expert power. The greater the number of these powers available to the manager, the greater is his or her potential for effective leadership.
3. Third is the ability to influence the follower’s behaviour in number of ways. Leaders have influenced soldiers in battlefield to make supreme sacrifice. 
4. Fourth is that the leader must have values. James Mc Gregor Burns argues that a leader how ignors the moral component of the leadership may go down in history with bad reputation. Moral leadership ligent choices when it comes to responding to a leader’s proposal to lead.    
Five Characteristics or Nature of Effective Leadership: -
1. Integrity - We need leaders with strong values grounded in a commitment to a life that is whole and consistent with the things they believe. They should take personal responsibility for their actions and be honest with others and with themselves. 
2. Energy - Leaders who energis and inspire other people make every one around them better-not by administering, but by ministering. 
3. Inspiration - Trust and confidence are vital, but it is a leader’s responsibility to help create a vision of what is possible. They should inspire others to see the greatness that is with in them.
4. Wisdom - Leader’s need to be teachers. They must see beyond the  horizon and understand the principle that underlie success. It is necessary to be a great communicator and teach indeed. 
5. Courage - Leaders have to do hard things. They have to have standards and make tough decisions that might make them unpopular and do the right thing though the wrong thing is easier. Courage is hard, but it can be developed.     

Q.14. What are the possible causes of industrial accidents? How will you remove these causes?                                                                              (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.9 sol. (2011 - 12) and Q.4. (2012 - 13).

Q.15. What is the purpose of training? Explain the important methods of training of personnel.                                                                                    (2014 - 15)  
Ans. Go through Q.7 sol. (2011 - 12).