Solution Of Human Value And Professional Ethics Year 2014 - 15 (For UPTU / AKTU)

Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Technical University (FormerlyUPTU)

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Q.1. Fill in the blanks: 
(a) Without value there is no ___________.
(b) Human being is a ___________ part of nature.
(c) To nuture the body of our relative is called ______.
(d) The nature is collection of _______.
(e) Right understanding provides vision for a _______ human order.
Ans. (a) harmony   (b) integral   (c) care (d)  units (e) universal. 

Q.2. Match A with B
A             B
Prosperity         Temporary need
Food                 Recyclabililty
Hoarding         Basic aspiration
Eco-friendly technology Holistic technology
Organic farming         Unethical                                                   (2014 - 15)
Ans. A               B
Prosperity         Basic aspiration
Food                Temporary need
Hoarding         Unethical
Eco-friendly technology Holistic technology
Organic farming         Recyclabililty

Q.3. What is harmony? Discuss in detail with universal aspect.                            (2014 - 15)
Ans.         Go through Q.18 page  no. 66.

Q.4. What is value education and why is it so important to professional education?(2014 - 15) Ans.         Go through Q.1. page no.1.
        Value based education instills educational and cultural values among students and aims at achieving multi-faceted development of a human being namely intellectual, physical, spiritual, and ethical development.
The values incorporated in a value-based curriculum may include cooperation, responsibility, happiness, simplicity, unity, peace, respect, love, tolerance, honesty, huminity, and freedom. The main purpose of holistic education is to prepare students to meet the challenges of living as well as academics. Multiple studies have reported that value based education is a holistic approach to students' education, one that provides complete education of body and mind through innovative approaches and critical educational thinking. 

Q.5. What is prosperity? Is it different from happiness?                                (2014 - 15)
Ans. Happiness - Happiness is state of non-contradictory joy - a joy without penalty or guilt a joy that does not clash with any of your values and does not work for your own destruction. 
Prosperity - Prosperity is a feeling of having more facilities than what is needed. Being prosporous is the basic need of every human being. Happiness prosperity and continuity of these two is the basic requirement of a human being. 
Difference Between Prosperity And Happiness: -
Happiness - Happiness is purely once state of mind. A person has lots of money, laxuries but still he finds that there is something lacking, whereas a poor person who is just able to meet his daily needs is happy. So happiness simply lies in our thoughts. Thoughts are like a picture which runs in our mind. It is how well you interpret the meaning of it lies the key to our happiness. Like an edge old truth says happiness has less to do with circumtances then with our attitude and approach to life. Happiness is a very desirable state. Indeed, all of us consciously or unconsciously, are motivated in all we do by our need for happiness. Happiness is contagious that is if you are happy then only you can spread happiness. 
There are two path which leads one to happiness - 
(i) Preya - What is pleasant? This give instant happiness. 
(ii) Shreya - What is beneficial? Though this path does not give instant happiness but it leads one to the path of enduring happiness. It provides happiness in the long run. 
Prosperity: -
It is a feeling of having more than required physical facilities. Prosperity is generally aligned to wealth, but then there are other factors such as happiness, health etc. Which can also make a man prosperous. For prosperity 
(i) We need to identify the quantity required for physical need. 
(ii) means or ability to fulfill the physical need.
The essence of prosperity is abundance and the essence of abundance is creation. It does not happen, you have to create it. Prosperity as being mentioned before cannot  be misinterpreted for money alone. In contrast to instant rich who have lot of money but no prosperity are the productive poor with little money but much prosperity. Prosperity can not be called an attitude only. To fulfill the physical needs one has to work. A person’s worth can be judged by the work he does. For this, one needs to do the task assigned to him with honesty and with full dedication. The result of this hard work may be materialistic but compiled with a feeling of happiness which makes us feel prosporous.   

Q.6. What do you mean by self introspection?                                             (2014 - 15)   
Ans. Introspection means ‘looking within,’ looking into the working of our own minds and reporting what we find their means, it is a method of self observation; “Observation by an individual of his own mental states directly and by the use of his memory”. 
“Looking into our own minds and reporting what we discover there” - James.
The self observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations. It is a conscious mental and perposive process relying on thinking, reasoning and examining one’s own thoughts, feelings in more spritual cases and one’s soul.
“An art and self description of mind and its activities.” - Ryle
Introspection is a process that yields knowledge of one’s own current mental state. Introspective knowledge is often held to be more immediate or direct than sensory knowledge. Introspective knowledge can serve as a ground or foundation for other sorts of knowledge. It is philosophy of mind, offer a variety of theories of the nature of introspection and philosophical claims about consciousness, emotion, free will, personal identity, thought, belief, imagery, perception and other mental phenomenon are often thought to have introspective consequences or to be susceptible to introspective verification.  

Q.7. Explain the relation between the self and body. What is the responsibility of self towards the body?                                                                                   (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.6. page no. 28.

Q.8. Define Sanyam and Swasthya. How are the two related?                         (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.7. page no. 29 and Q. 16 page no. 43 respectively.

Q.9. What is meant by affection? How does the feeling of affection solve the problem of cut throught competition prevalent today?                                                                  (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.15 page no. 61.

Q.10. How will you define and explain the development of a society? Discuss the light of comprehensive human goal.                                                                 (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.14 page no. 60.

Q.11. What is harmony in nature and why is it so important to attain harmony in nature?                                                                                   (2014 - 15)
Ans. Go through Q.3. page no. 69.

Q.12. What are the natural characteristics of the material and pranic order? Explain.                                                                                              (2014 - 15) 
Ans.     Each order has a certain value. In a fundamental way, this is the ‘usefulness’ or ‘participation’ of the order in existence. This ‘value’ or ‘participation’ is also referred to as “natural characteristic”. The ‘characteristic’ the order displays is natural ‘netural to itslef’. This is the same as the value of entity, or its participation also called ‘svabhava’.
Natural Characteristics of Material Order: -
The fundamental characteristic or ‘svabhava’ of ‘composition/decomposition’ enables units or entities to come together and form a bigger unit. Bigger units transform to smaller units. Particles of soil combine to form a brick. Bricks combine to form towers. This is a case of composition. When the tower falls, it breaks down to small particles of soil. This is decomposition. This is the way material entities participate with other material units. It is on this account that we are able to construct buildings, roads, vehicles etc. And the good thing is that they go back cyclically to the original state based on their characteristic.
Natural Characteristics Of plant / bio order: -
In this order, that pranic units nurture or worsen other pranic units. To nurture means to be supportive, to aid other pranic activities in the growth of pranic units. For example, vegetable is a pranic unit and our body is also a pranic unit. If I eat vegetable, it helps my body grow. Similarly, if I eat datura, the thorn apple, another pranic unit, it will worsen my body. If I eat the same vegetable in large quantity than required, it will work to worsen my body. To worsen means to be a deterrent, repressive to the other pranic activity. Hence,  we say that the svabhava or ‘value’ or ‘natural characteristic’ of the plant/bio order is to ‘Nurture/Worse’. This is the ‘value’ of the pranic in existence for all the orders.

Q.13. There is recyclability in nature. Explain with the help of suitable example.     (2014 - 15) Ans. Recyclability: -
Recycling occurs in nature everyday. Recyclability is a process in which a material unit in nature transforms and finally comes back to the same form. Recyclable materials are those that still have useful physical and chemical properties after serving their original use and can therefore be reused or remanufactured into addition products.
Let us take an example of the oxygen cycle. Human being breath in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide which is used by the plants for the process of photosynthesis. Plants manufacture their food and give out oxygen. Thus oxygen is recycled back into nature and the nature does not get deprived of it. Another example will make this concept more clear. Plants derive nourishment from the soil, they grow and shed their leaves and may ultimately die. They decay in the soil and in turn nourish the soil.
We must try not deprive nature of its valuable resources, instead adpot environmental friendly means of recyclable production. There exists a give and take relationship it, then it will create an imbalance in the ecological system. This imbalance will result in global warming, natural calamities like floods, drought etc. It thus becomes the duty of every individual to take care nature which is in a way taking care of himslef. 

Q.14. What is the difference between respect and disrespect? Which of the two is naturally acceptable to you?                                                                              (2014 - 15) 
Ans. Go through Q.12 page no . 59.

Q.15. What do you mean by sustainable development? Discuss.                        (2014 - 15) 
Ans. Sustainable Development: -
Definition: -
The development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’; this is the most widely accepted definition. Thus, sustainable development is a philosophy based on human goals and the understanding of long-term impacts of human activities on the environment and biosphere. It is a programme which can fulfil the present aspirations as well as conserve the future.
The major goal of sustainable development is the conservation of natural resources including living things.  This not only centres on using such resources in a wise manner in order to prevent their depletion, but also on using them in a manner that will not degrade their quality for future generations. A major initiative at the international level to understand what sustainability means was the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, which brought together governments of various countries across the world. The principal outcome of the Rio Conference was Agenda 21. This Agenda describes the actions necessary for progressing towards a sustainable society.
Measures: -
1. Implementing effective planning for population control.
2.  Reducing per-capita demand of natural resources.
3.  Using efficient technological devices.
4.  Following the three Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle) approach.
5.  Promoting environmental awareness through education.
6.  Using effective planning for regeneration of natural resources.

Q.16. How will you define work ethics? Discuss the guidelines for work ethics.      (2014 - 15)
Ans. Work Ethics: -
Work ethics is a set of values based on hard work and diligence. It is also a belief in the moral benifit of and its ability to enhance character. An example would be the protestant work ethics. Work ethics may include being reliable having initiative or maintaining social skills. Work ethics are intrinsic, they come from within. God made humans in his image, and his world procalims  these various work ethics - honesty, integrity, doing a job well keeping things above board, and accountablity factors. 
There are two fundamental work ethics - humility and the treatment of others. Humility is being humble, no task is too demeaning. Humility involves servitude, which emphasizes placing other people need before ones own. Treating others with decency and respect equate to the golden rule. The treatment of others involves loving your neighbour, loving oue enemy, doing well to those who dislike us. It involves valuing others and knowing they have worth.
Guidlines Of Work Ethics: -      
HP, Johnson and Johnson Ben and Jerry are some of the well known names in the field of ‘Working with Ethics’. These companies have adopted some guidlines to cultivate and maintain ethics in work life. Some of the guidelines listed below may be followed by a company for the said purpose.
(i) A company and its employees should always believe that managing ethics is a continuous process and it is inherent like any other management function in the organization.
(ii) The ground of ethics management is a relationship and behaviour is the root, thus without fair and just behaviour an orgination cannot make their employees follow ethical practices:
Mc Gregor’s Red-hot stove rule says, the administration of discipline should be more as if touching a hot stove immediate, impersonal, consistent, and foreseeable. In the same way the act of breaking ethical norms code must be rooted out in this very initial stage. The codes must be applicable to each employee without discrepancy.
Value forgiveness it is better to try operating ethically and commiting few mistake than not trying at all.
Participation of employees in such program must be sought out. Employee must feel that working with ethics is as much necessary for the good health for the orgnization as fresh air is for human being.
A company may adopt different ways and methods to bring in work life. Further, the other side of the coin is “Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsible while bad people will find a way around the laws” Pluto.
Whether the circumtance is in bussiness or life, ethical values should be the ground-rules for behaviour. When we live by these values we are demonstrating that we are worthy of trust.

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