PC Unit 4.3

Q.12 Often it is difficult to know where to begin. When you are preparing a presentation what do you think is the first thing you should consider? Why?          (2008-09)
Ans. Three steps in presentation process: -
1. Planning: - It includes -
* purpose, analysis, layout, schedule.
Profile of the audience -
* Investigation of needed information.
* Good relationship with audience.
2. Writing: - It includes
* Organizing, defining main idea, limit of the scope, choose approach, prepare outline and deciding the style.
* Compose presentation, insuring that introduction, Body, closing, question and answers are well arranged.
3. Completing: - It includes -
* Revising, editing, conciseness and clarity.
* Producing - review everything like in proper grammar and error.
* Proof  reading, practice of presentation, checking the location and find question responsibility.
Steps to a successful presentation: -
These are the seven basic steps which should be consider at the time of making presentation.
(a) Decide upon the objective
(b) Manner of presentation
(c) Mode of presentation
(d) Preparation of visual aids, handouts and feedback form.
(e) Rehersal
(f) Final presentation.
We should think and prepare for good presentation because: -
(a) It will be effective.
(b) Presentation will create interest among listeners.
(c) Presenter will be able to give his 100% through his presentation.
(d) Success of person, giving presentation depends upon the appreciation given by audience.

Q.13 What is the need of preparing an outline of an oral presentation ?
Ans. An outline can be used as final ‘script’. It helps the speaker to remain audience oriented and also keep the presentation within allotted time. Below are mentioned a few points which may be included in a carefully prepared outline :
(i) Give heading in complete sentences or phrases.
(ii) Note down sub-headings also.
(iii) Include notes that indicate where visuals will be used.
(iv) Transitional phrases can be used.
(v) Include notes that indicate use of body language, a change in tone and pauses here and there.

Q.14 Discuss the Nuances of voice dynamics.              (2009-10)
Related Questions -
Q.        What are essential nauances of speech delivery?     (2013 - 14)
Ans.  In order to control the audience, the speaker has to adopt certain strategies. Primary among them is the use of language. The speaker should speak a language which is close to the participants. Clarity is the key-word in oral presentation. Here are given few important points which a presenter should keep in mind :
(i) Pronunciation: -
Words should be pronounced clearly, with proper stress and intonation. Mispronunciation sometimes leads to confusion and spoils all presentation howsoever well planned it is. For example, due to the interference of mother-tongue, the speaker pronounces ‘is’ as ‘iz’, ‘these’ as ‘thez’, ‘measure’ as ‘mejor’ etc.
(ii) Modulation of the Voice: -
(a) Voice should be vibrant and well-modulated.
(b) Pauses should be at the right place.
(c) Rate of delivery should be normal. Since too slow or too fast delivery spoils the entire presentation.
(d) Nasalization of the voice should be avoided.
(iii) Use of Connectives: -
There are various kinds of connectives which may be used in oral presentation. There are some words or phrases which indicate the end of one thought and shift to another. Even rise and fall in tone can serve this purpose. The speaker can use such phrases as :
* After having said that
* It is time now to
* In addition
Likewise his falling pitch will indicate the end of his speech.

Q.15 To participate effectively in an effective presentation one requires the right combination of speaking abilities and strategies - explain.                (2009-10)
Ans. If one wants to make one’s presentation effective one should combine speaking abilities and strategies together. To improve speaking skills one is required to master over some tips as follows :
Speaking Abilities :
1. Correct pronunciation 2. Emphasis on the words or the phrases more significant than others
3. Maintain gap between two words. 4. Clear and energetic voice
Strategies :
1. Confidence level High 2. Proper eye contact
3. Graceful - personal appearance 4. Impressive - facial expression
5. Attractive - gestures         6. Cool - postures.

Q.16. Define tone modulation.                                         (2011 - 12)
Ans. Tone Modulation: -
Tone means the quality of sound produced by the voice in uttering words. Tone is used to convey an attitude. The rise and fall of the tone can express whether the speaker is arguing or he is in anger or in grief or exhausted.

Q.17. Write short notes on the following: 
(i) Pitch (ii) Rhythm (iii) Intonation                                            (2013 - 14)
Ans. (i) Pitch: -
Pitch refers to the number of variation per second in the voice. The rise and the fall of the voice conveys emotion.
Variation in the pitch enables the speaker to present or deliver his subject effectively since a speech delivered with static or level pitch becomes monotonus.
(ii) Rhythm: -
It refers to the modulation of weak and strong elements in the flow of speech.
Articulation can be improved by voice modulation. The vibrant, animated and well modulated voice plays a vital role in presentation. The following points are to be taken into consideration for proper articulation.
(i) Essential variation in the speech 
(ii) Pauses put at the right places
(iii) Normal rate of delivery
(iv) Avoiding nasalization or vocalized pauses such as er, ah, unh, um etc.
(iii) Intonation: -
When somebody speaks then continued variations in pitch can easily be noticed. There are continuous rise and fall in one’s speech. To R. K. Bansal, “The term intonation refers to pitch patterns that are part of the structure of sentences.” The type of utterance and also the speaker’s mood and his attitude determine the intonation pattern he adopts while speaking. The speaker’s emotions also affect the intonation patterns.
There are three kinds of intonation.
(i) the falling tone
(ii) the rising tone
(iii) the falling-rising tone

Q.18. Write short-notes on the following:
(i) Essentials of Speech-Delivery/Oratory  
(ii) Kinesics - its prominent features.                                     (2011 - 12)
Ans. (i) While the presenter is required to hold a positive attitude, a positive thought process, he is required not to overlook certain other essentials. Asha Kaul refers to three such essentials of presentation:
(a) Verbal content (b) Voice modulation, articulation and
(c) Body sport or body langauge.
Along with adeqaute material, the presenter is required to pay due attention to the right pronunciation. He should do a lot of practice of speaking wordswith proper stress and the pitch should also be according to the content and context. A proper attention to the postures, gestures and head and eye contacts should also be paid.
(ii) Go through Q.10.

Q.19. What are the various media of expression ?                              (2009 - 10)
Ans. Various Media of Expression: -
The purpose of your expression not only decides the content and style but also affects the amount of audience interaction. For instance when your purpose is to provide information or to analyse a situation, you and the audience generally interact in a limited manner. Say you want to present the control of operations or implementation of policies and procedure or the status of work, to the respective audience, they may ask questions or offer suggestion.
Visual Aids: -
Spoken words are ephemeral as soon as they come out of our mouth they evaporate into the air. Because of this limitation, speeches often need strong visual support handouts, chalk boards, flip chart, over heads, slides, computers, chents, tables, film etc.
Speaking: -
Speaking is one of the most important tool of expression. Speaking can communicate bigger or smaller expression cheaply. This is the oldest way of expression, but it is very sensitive.
Print Media: -
Print media is one of the cheapest media of expression. It have not much audience & it express information very slowly. With respect to digital media it is very expensive.
Electronic Media: -
It is one of the strongest media. It covered lot of audience county wide. It express information very fastly, and correctly. It express live information.
Digital Media: -
It is the lowest and highest popular expression media. Internet is a source & important storage of digital expression media.

Q.20. What is active listening? Describe the methods to cultivate it.              (2013 - 14)
Ans. Active listening: -
When the listener listen to one’s speech attentively and comprehends its meaning, it is known as active listening. In such sort listening, the listener is actively involved in the process of communications. Listener’s attentiveness provides an impetus to the speaker to present his message more enthusiastically and more sincerely. This sort of listening where the listener at once grasps the message, communicated to him, is known as active listening.
Stage in the development of listening skills: -
Listening, a skill and ability, has different stages in its development:
(i) The basic experience in listening, understanding and recognition can be considered the first stage in the development of the listening skill. This is called ‘causal listening’. 
(ii) At this stage the learner recollects and comprehends the meaning of the message without the help of any visual presentations. This is possible when the learner is able to stake back from memory the recorded message. This is the second stage of the development of listening skill and is called  ‘attentive listening’.
(iii) In the next stage, the stage of focused listening, the learner uses the language code. He forms certain images in the mind and name them using language code.
(iv) The next stage is called analytical listening which is very essential for creative thinking and creative writing. At this stage, the learner develops the ability to analyze, evaluate and apply his ability on an envisioned situation.