PC Unit 4.1

Q.1         What do you mean by presentation ? What are the purpose of presentation ?
Ans. Presentation is a powerful medium of communicating ideas. Speaking before an audience is an opportunity to provide a platform to the speaker to express his point of view. Presentation involves a pre-planned and organized structure.
Presentation of report may be made through two methods verbal communication and non-verbal communication.
The purpose of presentation are –
(a) To decide the content and style of presentation.
(b) To present the amount of audience interaction.
(c) To present the control of operations or implementation of policies and procedure or the status of work to the respective audiences.
(d) To persuade people to take a particular action, or to collaborate with them in solving a problem or making a decision.
(e) To provide information. Such presentation is to be based on facts and figures.
(f) To entertain. Sometimes oral presentations are made in order to entertain.
(g) To motivate.

Q.2 How to analysis audience and locale in presentation?
Related Questions -
Q. What is the importance of audience and locate in formulating presentation strategies for the speaker? Analyze briefly.                                                                         (2012 - 13)
Ans. To analyse audience following steps should be taken before presentation -
(i) It is necessary to have some prior knowledge of the audience’s characteristics.
(ii) If audience members have linguistic or cultural background, the accent of the presentation will appreciate relatively slow speech and visual aids designed to aid them understanding.
(iii) If target audience is from own organization, greasing of style and content of speech should be on background, needs, interests and attitudes of them.
(iv) Build support, anticipate problems and consider strategies while speaking something controversial towards audience.
In addition to an overall understanding of the audience, locale is also important for the presentation. Every location has its unique physical environment. For presentation, attention to the physical conditions confronting audience such as
(i) Place of presentation (whether a large auditorium or conference room).
(ii) A podium or a table provided.
(iii) Public address system available.
(iv) Seating arrangement, room temperature and lighting.
(v) Visual-aids available.

Q.3 What is the importance of Audience Analysis in an oral presentation.  
Or. What is the need of audience analysis.                                              (2010 - 11)
Ans. The ‘audience’ specifically means the receiver of the message. Before a speaker begins his talk, he should have some knowledge of the audience beforehand i.e. their age, sex, interest, background, education and nature. His selection of vocabulary, tone, style etc. will be decided according to the type of audience. Some main categories of audience are-Experts, Technicians, Executives, Nonspecialists. Another important thing for successful presentation is to know about the size of the audience, their level of understanding and also their cultural background.

Q.4         What are the contents of presentation?
Ans. There are three major parts of the contents of presentations.
(I) Introduction: -
The introduction comprises the porch or the opening statement, the aim and the layout. The porch can be a question, an sincere greeting, or a starting statement. This catches the attention of audience and prepares them to listen to the rest of the presentation. 
(II) Main Body: -
The main body or the tent part follows the subsequent to introduction and supports the aim or specific purpose of presentation.
Following are the patterns to organize the main body of speech –
(a) Chronological: -
This pattern is for organizing the details arranged sequentially. This method is useful for topics like ‘the profile of institute, ‘the changing face of the earth’, and ‘history of sports’.
(b) Categorical: -
This is one of the easiest and most commonly adopted patterns for many topics. The entire presentation can be divided into various topics and sub-topics arrange on the basis of subordination and coordination.
(c) Cause and Effect: -
This method adopt whenever there exists a cause and effect relationship. First to illustrate and explain the causes of the situation and then focus on the effects.
(d) Problem Solution: -
Divide the presentation into two parts. In the first part describe and analyse the cause and effect of the problem. After analysis the main objective  Presentation, move on to propose or suggest a solution to the problem. It is very effective way for persuasive presentation.
(III) Conclusion: -
Conclusion of presentation can be performed by reviewing the main points. Presentations are, very often followed by a question period. Questions provide vital feedback about the ideas that have forth in presentation.

Q.5         What are the importance of visual aids ?
Ans. Picture is simple, clear and appropriate visual for the purpose of audience for delivering message more accurately and quickly than a verbal explanation.
Its importance are –
* It increases audience interests.
* Illustrate key points
* Increase impact of message
* Help listeners retain information.
* Help to present ideas without depending on notes and for those people who are not familiar with the language or accent of presentation.
Point to Consider Using the Different Visual Aids: -
Q.6 What are the four modes or methods of delivery which can be used for making presentation.                                                                                  (2009-10)
Related Questions -
Q. Differentiate between Extempore mode of speech and Impromptu mode. Highlight the importance of these modes in speech-making.                                                        (2011 - 12)
Q. Specify different modes of Delivery of speech. What do you consider as the best mode of speaking/communicating?                                                                                (2012 - 13)
Q. Describe some methods of speech delivery by which interest of the listeners could be sustained.                                                                                       (2013 - 14)  
Q. What are different modes of speech delivery? Differentiate between extempore and impromptu modes of speaking.                                                                      (2013 - 14)
Ans. The four modes of delivery which can be used for making presentation are –
(i) Extemporaneous: -
Extemporaneous presentation is by far most popular and effective method when carefully prepared. Presentation will sound quite spontaneous to the audience as after thorough preparation, we are speaking while thinking.
Positive and Negative Aspects of this Mode of Presentation: -
Advantage: -
(a) Delivery sounds natural and spontaneous to the audience as it allow to establish a report with the audience through more eye contact.
(b) It provide enough time to prepare presentation.
Disadvantage: -
(a) If the presentation is inadequate, presenter can get lost and find himself uncomfortable.
(b) If note cards can be used for reading out instead of consulting for reference, speech will lose its spontaneity.
(ii) Manuscript: -
In this presentation, material is written out an presenter are supposed to read it out aloud verbatim. Presenters are not supposed to memorize the speech and then recollect it. Its advantage and disadvantages are –
Advantage: -
(a) It is a permanent and accurate record of whatever presenter have to say
(b) There is no chance of tampering with facts and figures.
Disadvantage: -
(a) While reading from the manuscript, one gets less time for making proper eye contact, which is essential to fell the pulse of audience.
(b) Absence of effective reading skill, miss of punctuation marks adds up to an uninteresting speech and loss of audience attention.
(iii) Impromptu: -
To deliver an informal speech without preparation is known as impromptu mode. Advantages and disadvantages are –
Advantage: -
(a) People do not get enough time to make elaborate preparation, so they sound very natural.
(b) Persons get chance to express their thoughts irrespective of what others think or say about that particular topic.
Disadvantage: -
(a) The presentation lacks organized development of ideas because of the shortage of time.
(b) There is no supplementary material (no data, no statistics, no illustrations, no figures) to substantiate the speech.
(c) Chances of rambling are very high. Various points may hang loose.
(iv) Memorization: -
This method of presentation is very difficult for most of us. Probably only a handful of matter should be memorize in an entire speech. This types of delivery stands somewhere between extemporaneous and manuscript presentation.
Advantages: -
(a) It is very easy for such speakers to maintain an eye contact with the audience throughout the presentation.
(b) It is possible to finish the speech in allotted time.
Disadvantages: -
(a) Memorization requires too much time.
(b) No flexibility or adaptation is possible during the speech.