PC Unit 3.4

Q.12 How is a demi-official letter differ from an official letter ? Write a D.O. letter ?
Related Questions -
Q. What is the difference between Government letter and D.O. letter?      (2012 - 13)
Ans.  Demi-official letters are almost just like private letters. They are different from official letters in certain respects :
(i) Like an official letter, it should contain number and date and place.
(ii) After the subject of the letter, salutation should be written. In official letters, we write Sir/Madam whereas in D.O. ‘Dear Sir’ or ‘Dear Madam’ can be written.
(iii) The main body of the D.O. letter is written in less formal style.
(iv) In D.O. letters generally complimentary close is ‘Yours sincerely’.
(v) Demi-official letters should not be quoted or referred to like an official letter.
April 18, 2008
To : All Employees of Gregg Mather inc.
From : Jason Leavitt, Human Resources Director
Re : Meet your New IT Manager
D.O. Letter No : E/23/13102
Dear Employees,
Our new IT manager will begin work at Gregg Mather inc. this Thursday. Please take a moment to welcome Sarah J. Thomton to our team.
Sarah has nearly 20 years experience in the information technology field. She comes to us from her position as IT manager at Ohio Glass Co., where she managed a staff of nine, running the midrange computer system at the company’s Dayton office and providing desktop support.. In 2007, Sarah oversaw her department’s upgrade to 15.
Sarah holds an MIS degree from Ohio State and has the expertise to run the computer systems in our office.
I encourage each of you to introduce yourself to Sarah during her first few here and make her feel welcome.
Jason Leavitt
Human Resources Director

Q.13 Write short notes on the following :
(i) Circular letters (ii) Memos (iii) Notices
Ans. (i) Circular Letters: -
    Circular letters are used by the seniors or sometimes by the juniors with specific purposes. They can be official or sometimes demi-official. Such variations are necessary when authorities of different status are addressed. When they are written to the subordinates, their purpose is to have an enquiry or issue some instructions.
Example : 
Sri Musaddi Lal
Board of High School and
Intermediate Education
Uttar Pradesh
No. 1234-Recog. 2007
Dated : May 30, 2008
Subject : Recognition of High Schools and Intermediate Colleges
I have the honour to state that at the meeting of the Board held on May 20, 2008 under the chairmanship of the Director of Education U.P., it was resolved that the last date for submitting applications for recognition of High Schools and Intermediate Colleges and for opening classes in new groups and subjects be fixed by July 31 i.e., the applications for recognition to send candidates at the High School or the Intermediate examination of 2009 should be made latest by July 31, 2008.
You are requested kindly to issue necessary instructions in this regard to all concerned.
M. Lal
Copy to all District Inspectors of Schools
Uttar Pradesh.
(ii) Memos: -
Memo is an abbreviation of memorandum which is often used for memorandum reports in the business world. Today it has become an integral part of inter and intra departmental correspondence. According to Lesikar and Flatley, “Memorandums are a form of letter written inside the business. In rare cares, they may be used in communicating outside the business. They are written messages exchanged by employees in the conduct of their work”. For example the President sends a memo to the Vice-President who sends it further to Head of the Dept.
Memos are used for different purposes -
(i) To issue instructions
(ii) To record facts and decisions
(iii) To explain organizational policies
(iv) To invite employees or others for official meetings
(v) To give some suggestions or recommendations
(vi) To seek some clarifications or explanations.
Depending on their purpose there are three type of memos -
(i) Documentary 
(ii) Congratulatory
(iii) Disciplinary.
Memo forms including the following components : -
Heading, Opening, Main Body, Closing, Signature, Necessary Enclosures (copies).
Features of Good Memos: -
(i) Single Topic : A memo which does not have one single topic may confuse the readers and loose its meaning.
(ii) Clarity : A memo should always be drafted in simple and easy vocabulary.
(iii) Conciseness : A memo should be as short and to-the-point as possible.
(iv) Tone : The basic tone of the writer of a memo should be neutral or positive.
Example of Memo: -
L.R College,
Pune Crossing Road
Date : July 26, 2008
To : All members of Staff
From : Principal
Subject : Monthly Reports
The Board of Directors in its meeting, held on June 20, 2008, has decided that the academic performance of the students should be reviewed on monthly basis. It is believed that this will improve the academic environment of the college. You, therefore, are requested to make sure that your monthly report reaches the head office by 7th every month.
I hope you all will pay special attention to this matter.
Romesh Sharma.
(iii) Notices: -
Notices are formal communications, embodying formal orders in regard to public officers. They are generally orders of promotion, transfer, rules about services or some amendments in rules etc. The Government notices are published in newspapers or Gazette. They are meant for general information.
Example :
Goodwill Industries Ltd.
Haridwar (U.K.)
Dated : 10.02.07
Mr. K. Vishwanathan is placed under suspension w.e.f. today i.e., February 10,2007, on account of his reported involvement in a fraud.
Mr. K. Vishwanathan is not allowed to enter the company premises and operate any accounts of the company till the committee, appointed for enquiry, sets him free from all charges.
M.M. Menon
General Manager

Q.14 What do you mean by a report ? Mention in brief the characteristics of a business report and explain structure of report with suitable example.               (2010 - 11)
Related Questions -
Q. Define Reports and discuss their characteristics.                                      (2009-10)
Q. What is technical style of report writing? How could choice of words determine the tone and tenor of technical style? Illustrate.                                                       (2012 - 13)
Ans. The word report has been derived from the Latin word report are which means to carry back. A report, thus, means to carry back to someone who was not present the description of an event.
A report, generally, means ‘to give an account of something seen, heard, done etc. “A business report is an orderly and objective communication of factual information that serves a business purpose”.
Characteristics of Business Report: -
1. The business report should be concise. Irrelevant descriptions should be avoided.
2. Main ideas should not be omitted.
3. Ideas should be logically arranged i.e. where one idea leads to another naturally.
4. The reporter is supposed to be detached and impersonal.
5. It should be complete in all respects.
6. Use of bombastic language should be avoided.
7. As the business reports are meant to inform the shareholders, directors or members of an enterprise hence all necessary information should be furnished such as summary of a balance sheet, market trends etc.
8. Important facts should be given at the very inception.
Structure of a Report: -
A report have three parts, namely :
(1) Front matter (2) Main body (3) Back matter
(1) Front Matter: -
It includes cover page, title page, acknowledgment, table of contents and an abstract or summary. The cover page protects the report from rain or any other damages. It includes the name of the reporter and the date. The title page also has the name of the writer, its title and date.
(2) Main Body: -
It includes introduction, description, discussion, conclusion and recommendation. Introduction introduces the report to the readers. An introduction includes statements of
· purpose of the report (problem it studies)
· scope of the investigation
· procedure adopted while investigating
· background of the project
Another major part of the main body of the report is description and discussion. This section of the report includes a detailed description of the work and also a discussion of the problem in detail. At the end of the report, conclusions and recommendations are given. The conclusion section emphasizes the most significant data and ideas of report. The recommendation section may give some suggestions for improvement but all formal reports do not make a recommendation.
(3) Back Matter: -
The back matter has appendix, list of references, bibliography, glossary and index. The first major part of back matter is appendix. It contains information of a supplementary or highly technical nature which cannot be placed in the main body of the report. It generally includes such sub-sections as tables, data, model or other relevant documents.
There are two methods of writing references or footnotes-one of the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the other of the American Psychological Association (APA).
Bibliography is another major part of Back Matter. On a final page of report, an alphabetized list of sources should be mentioned. These sources may include a list of books, periodicals, interviews etc., and citation of these references is known as bibliography. The bibliography imparts information about the writer, the book, the publication, the edition, the no. of volume and the year of publication. Besides appendix, reference and bibliography, glossary and index should be included in the back matter of a report, if it is necessary. A glossary is defined as a list of unfamiliar words or the uncommon technical terms which are beyond the understanding of a common reader.
Step in Writing a Report: -
(1) Analyse the problem
(2) Determine the scope of the report
(3) Consider the audience / Reader
(4) Gather information
(5) Analyse the information
(6) Preparing the report.
Example : 
Pauley and Riordan present a sample memo report which has a short introduction, briefly recounts the results of a test and recommends a course of action - all in three paragraphs.
To : Bob Mitchell
From : Marcia L. Cody
Subject : Shrustik Vs. WA tapes April 1, 1993
I’ve completed the laboratory testing on the Shrustik and the WA tapes used for Bi-pack cans. This report presents the results of my tests along with my recommendation. I performed the laboratory vibration testing according to ASTMN packing regulations.
The WA tapes is far superior to the Shrustik tape in preventing can separation during shipping. The Shrustik tapes showed 27 out of the 60 cans tested completely separated from each other. Another 17 out of the 60 cans joined together with the Shurstik tapes showed severe tape scuffling. The WA tapes tested showed no cans separated, and only 5 out of the 60 cans had some scuffling.
My recommendation is to use the WA rather than the Shrustik tapes to prevent can separation during shipping.
Purpose of memo
Credibility of Writer
Basic conclusion first
Data to support conclusion
Recommendation in separate paragraph for emphasis