PC Unit 2.5

Q.25 Write a paragraph on the following topices : -
(i) Where there is a will, there is a way                       (2002-03)
(ii) A stitch in time saves nine                       (2002-03)
(iii) A friend in need is friend indeed.               (2003-04)
(iv) Every cloud has a silver lining                                       (2003-04)
(v) Hurricane in US                               (2005-06)
(vi) Machines are mills of destruction
(vii) Knowledge is power.
Ans. (i) We have been witnessing in our history that strong will have made wonders. Even small nations could rule territories far and beyond. Once Napolion said the word impossible does not exists in my dictionary. It only reiteriates the fact that where there is will there is way. All it is needed a clear objective, determined effort and strong conviction aberation in form of obstacle may come in way but they can be overcome with our hard work. Perseverence and clarity of thought is must. We witness in our daily life how small enterprises could develop into huge business tykoons, small countries like Britain  rule the most part of the world. Indeed where there is will there is a way.
(ii) The time is precious and once it is gone it can not come back. Even a small effort made in time leads to giant leap in future and neglecting a small problem and not attending to it leads to catastrophic failure. Time and tide wait for none. It also happens same time that any wrong development if tackled in begining requires less of the effort. But once it is allowed to grow the effort required to control or remove it may be hurculian. If right effort is given at right time then only the results could be acceptable. Indeed a stich in time saves nine.
(iii) In this material world when no one has time for any one it is very difficult to find a friend. It is very easy to find fair weather friends but whenever testing time came they just vanish. One can see a buy with rich family has large no. of friends but a poor boy has virtuelly no friends. Even good friends because fierce competetor during campus interview. A true friend is noticed only when there is tough time. Only true friend stands by when testing time came. A good friends only goes side in good or bad time. It is true indeed that “A friend in need is friend indeed”.
(iv) The clouds symbolise darker side and bad characterstic. It is felt that the sky over casted by dark clouds is not a good men. But the optimistic point of view is that every cloud has silver lining. There is always a hope amidst dispair. Even a person with percieved negative qualities has something striking good in him, Only it is the matter of understanding the person. The phrase also gives a moral that some one should not be over burdened if surrounded by adversities. One should be patient enough and in positive frame of mind for a silver lining. The silver lining is some time revealed but most of time remain hidden inside the cloud. It is therefore true that every cloud has a silver lining in it.
(v) Voilent storms which develop in Western Atlantic Ocean is called Hurricane. It causes wide spread loss all over. In the receset year the USA has witnessed one of the most destructive hurricane like Caterina and Rita. On the date of 29th Aug 2005, Caterina struck the gulf coast. This hurricane along with its related flooding resulted in death of more than 1000 people. Hundreds of thousands of people were displaced. Several homes were destroyed and the disaster covered in an area over 20, 000 square miles. The hurricane Rita affected Louisiana and eastern Texas coast on 24th Sep 2005. It was lesser in intensity and destruction as compared to Caterina. The death caused by Rita were six in number. It destroyed power line, uprooted trees and flooded coastal area. People of the affected area had lost most of their property. Some agencies like American Redcross provided relief to hurricane surviver with shelter, food, health services. Some assistance was also provided in reconnecting the family members. The government provided some financial relief and assistance. The economy and the politics of USA had a deep impression and infact it is very difficult to assess the loss to the US during these two hurricane.
(vi) The greatest gift of science is the invention of machines which were invented to serve man. But unfortunately machines now rule over us in every walk of life. They have proved the agents of destruction in the sense that they have made our life completely mechanical. Machines, no doubt if used judiciously, may be great assets to mankind. Their use may enhance our capacity. For example, the means of transport have shortened the long distance and also helped man to save time. But man has today become a slave to machines as he is totally dependent upon them even for his routine work from dawn to dusk. He does not want to walk; he does not want to work with his hands. Such a reliance on machines has made him inactive. Human body which in itself is like a machine needs regular exercise for good working. The reason of modern man’s physical ailments is his complete dependence on machines. Machines are also responsible for many socio-economic evils, creeping in our society. The excessive use of machines has rendered many men jobless. Moreover, it has widened the gulf between the haves and have-nots where the rich are becoming richer and the poor poorer. The mechanical age has caused certain cultural hazards also. Man is instinctitively imbibed with love, brotherhood, gentleness, sympathy and many other human virtues and these virtues can easily be inculcated among the youngsters if they work hand in hand. Too much use of machines deprives our young generation to learn and develop these humanly virtues. Of course machines should be used to assist man and not to mar or abolish his angelic qualities.
(vii) Man is the best creature of God. Man’s superiority over other creatures is on account of his knowledge with which he can tame the most mighty animals. Also he has mastered the inconquerable elements of nature such as air and water. Hence, knowledge is the natural yearning of everyman. Wherever we are, we want to acquire all knowledge of that field. Bacon is of the opinion that knowledge itself is power. It is rightly said that ignorance is “the curse of God, knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to heaven”. Knowledge in itself is just like an unbounded ocean. The more we want to conquer it, the more vast it becomes. It is rather impossible for a man to acquire the limitless fund of knowledge in the limited span of life. Sometime this unlimited power of knowledge corrupts the possessor. He is led astray to the immoral path. Dr. Faustus, the Marlowian hero, falls a victim to an insatiable thirst for knowledge which ultimately makes him to barter his soul to Satan for twenty four years of complete knowledge. Thus, to acquire knowledge is not bad but to use that knowledge thoughtlessly is bad. However, it is sure that knowledge ensures power. It depends upon man how he uses it. Knowledge leads to success, it is sure. Kautilya once said, “A king is admired only in his own territory but a scholar is admired and respected world wide.” Once Gandhiji said, “It is knowledge that ultimately gives salvation.”

Q.26. Specify different devices to bring about coherence in paragraph to make it spontaneous. Describe briefly.                                                   (2012 - 13)
Ans. There are four significant devices to bring about coherence, namely:
1. Pronouns 2. Repetition 3. Synonyms 4. Connectives
1. Pronouns: A pronouns is used as a substitute for a noun which is its antecedent. This helps in maintaining continuity of thought. For example, ‘he’, ‘they’, ‘she’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘and’ ‘it’ are all pronouns.
2. Repetition: Repetition of certain words also gives coherence to a paragraph. While using repetition the writer must be very careful because too much repetition may lead to monotony.
3. Synonyms: Synonyms are used in place of certain words, already used and have similar meaning. This includes variety and thus helps the writer to avoid monotony.
4. Connectives: The use of connectives is another device which lends coherence to paragraph. These connectives, which occur at the beginning of a sentence, link it to the sentence that comes before. The connectives such as and, but, or, therefore, as a result, to sum up and in short may be used. Sentence linkers like moreover, for example, infact, however etc. also help in achieving coherence in paragraph.

Q.27. What are different methods of Precis writing? Distinguish Precis writing from paraphrasing.                                                                      (2012 - 13)
Ans. In order to write a précis, first you need to understand the complete work, so that you can abstract the central argument and express it cogently and completely. Next you must develop the argument exactly as the writer has presented it. And reduce the work by 75 – 80% of its size. Of course this is possible when you consider exactly how you learn to read the work.
The key word here is assimilation. When you read the material, it is probable that you will understand only those parts which have associations within your own experiences.
How you actually go about writing a précis depends largely on your ability to restate the writers central ideas after you have assimilated them in your own mind. The rules for writing a précis are as follows –
1. Read the original text carefully.
2. Write the précis in which you state the entire argument and present the logical progression of the argument.
3. Reduce the article to one – fifth to one – quarter of its original length and omit nothing from the essential argument. This is one of the key rules.
4. Write the précis and begin with your abstraction of the central, information idea of the article. Having understood and written the central idea, present the essential argument in as cogent manner as possible.
5. The central rule is – Do not copy a single sentence from the article. You many use key words and phrases only when you are expressing idea which are technically precise or when you feel comfortable using the writer’s own words, i.e., you understand exactly he or she means, and there is really no better way to express the concept.
Difference between Precis writing and Paraphrasing: -
Precis Writing: -
‘A précis is a short and crisp one third of the organic whole of the paragraph”. It involves summarizing a document to extract the maximum amount of information then conveying this information to a reader in the minimum number of words. All the ideas reproduced from the original paragraph form a compact whole. The words and sentences convey a sense of unity with each other.
It achieved by the process of sifting essential from unessential information, by avoid repetition and by omitting ornamental phrases and the like. The main theme run through the sentences like the string of a necklace.
In short, précis includes summarized points more concisely and develop these points into coherent sentences. It eliminates any repetitions or irrelevant details. It use indirect speech and do not add our comments.
Paraphrasing Writing: -
The word paraphrase is derives’s from a Greek source, meaning parallel wording. The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines Paraphrase as a statement that expresses something that somebody has written or said using different words, especially in order to make it easier to understand. It means that in paraphrasing changes are made only in words but the sense remains unchanged.

Q.28 Define the art of condensation or precis writing ? What are the qualities or features which are essential to a precis writing ?
Ans. The art of preparing synopsis with ease, an abstract or an executive summary which are essential elements of various technical documents known as ‘The Art of Condensation’. It is also known as Precis Writing. Precis writing involves summarizing a document to extract the maximum amount of information, then conveying this information to a reader in the minimum number of words.
The following qualities are essential to a precis –
(i) Completeness: -
The precis must have the essential contents of the original passage without omitting any important fact or idea.
(ii) Compactness: -
The word and sentence should convey a sense of unity with each other.
(iii) Conciseness: -
Brevity is the essence of a good precis. There should only be economy of words but not of ideas. All the essential ideas of the author should be given clearly but briefly and concisely.
(iv) Clarity: -
The precis should have clarity of expression.
(v) Coherence: -
All sentences and ideas in precis should follow one after the other in an unbreakable chain. The main theme should run through the sentences like the string of a necklace.