PC Unit 1.1

Q.1       What do you understand by the technical communication.        (2009-10, 10 -11, 13 - 14)
Ans.     The word ‘technical’, refers to “connected with the practical use of machinery, methods etc. in science and industry” and the word ‘communication’ means to share or exchange information, news and views etc. Technical communication, therefore, means the transmission of facts, figures, ideas and all sorts of scientific and technical information from one individual to another.
The technical communication may be spoken as well as written. The technologist has to be proficient in both types of the technical communication - oral and written. The speaker or a writer encodes a concept which he wants to communicate and that message or concept is decoded by the listener or the reader and converted into meaning. The technical communication can be internal or external.

Q.2 What are the features of technical writing.                                (2004-05, 09-10, 11 - 12)
Related Questions -
Q. Discuss the main features of technical communication.           (2010 -11, 13 - 14)
Ans. Some important features of technical writing are mentioned below -
(1) Use of familiar and Easy Words: -
In this writing instead of the abstract words, familiar words should be used. Technical writing does not require using more words than are wanted or use of many words where few would do.
(2) Use of Clear Sentences: -
The writer should place the main idea at the begining. He should follow normal word order (subject - verb - object). In this order, the first sentence is the topic sentence in which the main idea is presented.
(3) Use of Sentences of Temperate Length: -
Sentences should be temperate length, not too much short or not too much long.
(4) Use of Active Voice: -
The active voice helps the reader to comprehend ideas more easily.
(5) Avoid Redundant Phrases: -
Redundant phrases should be avoided and use concise word in place of them.
(6) Avoid Inaccurate Expressions: -
Precision and accuracy are two important features of technical writing.
(7) Logical Division of Paragraphs: -
In order to make a technical document clear and meaningful, thoughts should be properly arranged into different paragraphs. A single idea must be conveyed in a paragraph.

Q.3 Mention differences between the technical writing and general (Literature) writing.
                                                                                                                       (2005-06, 08-09, 09-10)
Related Questions -
Q. How is technical writing different from general writing?                (2009-10, 11 - 12)
Q. Differentiate between technical communication and general communication.       
                                                                                                                        (2010 -11, 13 - 14)
Q. Point out the features of general writing as contrary to technical writing. Describe briefly.
                                                                                                                        (2012 - 13)
Ans. Difference Between Technical Writing and General Writing: -
(1) Technical writing and general writing differ from each other on the basis of their purpose. General writings including poetry, novel, drama, short story and some other types of writing aim at amusing and inspiring the readers but the technical documents including report, resume, proposal and such other primarily aim at imparting information, some instructions and explanations.
(2) The difference between technical writing and general writing is also with regard to style. General or literary writings are cast in personal or subjective style whereas technical or professional writings are supposed to be free from personal bias. Objective or impersonal style is the hall mark of technical writing. General writing including fiction or other expressive writing may be highly imaginative, employing figurative word usage and symbolism or fictitious facts and characters. Technical document is always based on facts.
(3) The style of technical writing is accurate and precise while that of general writing poetic, decorative and bombastic.
(4) The language of technical writing should be simple but effective while a creative writer may indulge in extravagant and pompous choice of words.
(5) Technical writing conducts business hence it is related to some specific profession while general writing is related to life in general or life as a whole.
(6) A technical document differs from a general writing in terms of its vocabulary. Technical vocabulary is used in technical writing while in general writing familiar words or words of common use are generally included.

Q.4 Explain language as a Tool of communication.                                                      (2009-10)
Related Questions -
Q. Specify the importance of language as a tool for communication.                     (2011 - 12)
Q. What are the characteristics features of language?                                     (2013 - 14)
Ans. Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way. By changing the word order in a sentence, you can change its meaning, and even make it meaningless.
Characteristics of Language: -
According to eminent linguists such as Noam Chomsky and Ferdinand de Saussure, Language is;
(i) Artificial (ii) Restricted 
(iii) Abstract         (iv) Arbitrary 
(v) Creative         (vi) Redundant
(vii)  Recursive
(i) Language Should be Artificial: -
Humans attach meanings to words as they need to and modify these meanings according to changing needs. This is why we say language is ‘artificial’.
(ii) Language is Restricted:-
When individuals translate their thoughts into language, some meaning is lost in the process. No symbol or word can transmit the exact reality. This is because language is restricted.
(iii) Language is Abstract: -
It represents generalized ideas of things or thoughts. The idea which a word represents is different every time. Language to be abstract is to generalize and to generalize is to leave out many details.
On the whole we can say that language is abstract when meaning get associated with symbols and user keep expanding the range of meanings. 
e.g. – ‘dress’, - “it can represent anything from a frock to a sari”.
(iv) Language is Arbitrary: -
The language which is not seeming to be based on reason, system or plan. e.g. – a ‘table’ could have been called by any other name.
(v) Language is Creative: -
In language a word is created to explain the particular thought or process. We can make words more creative by adding different processes.
Words made by combining the sound and different words; e.g. – edutainment =education + entertainment
(vi) Language is Repetitive: -
Whatever language we use, it has the capacity for repetition. Repetition or redundancy which means word or ideas that are not needed may either improve or impede effective communication.
(vii) Language is Recursive: -
It involves a process that is applied repeatedly. It enables us to generate any number of sentences using the same basic grammatical templates. There is no limit to the potential length of a sentence.

Q.5 Describe levels of communication.
Related Questions -
Q. Explain the three levels of communication.                                                 (2009-10)
Q. What are the three prominent levels of communication? Explain briefly.     (2011 - 12)
Ans. Human communication takes place at various levels – 
(i) Extrapersonal Communication: -
Communication between human beings and non-human entities is extrapersonal communication. There should be perfect coordination and understanding between the sender and the receiver as at least one of them transmits information or responds in sign language only than any other form.
e.g. – A pet & human being.
(ii) Interapersonal Communication: -
The communication takes place within the individual is interapersonal communication –
e.g. – ‘Feeling hot’, individual decide to ‘turn on the cooler’ due to the information which is sent from brain of the individual itself.
Self motivation, self-determination, and the likeness take place at the intrapersonal level.
(iii) Interpersonal Communication: -
Communication at this level refers to the sharing of information among people. In this communication, the roles of sender and receiver keep alternating. This form of communication is advantageous because direct and immediate feedback is possible.
Interpersonal communication can be formal or informal. Depending upon the formality of the situation, interpersonal communication takes on different style. It’s situation depends on a variety of factors, such as the psychology of the two parties involved, the relationship between them, the situation in which the communication takes place, the surrounding environment, and finally the cultural context.
(iv) Organization Communication: -
Communication in an organization takes place at different hierarchical levels. Since a large number of employees are involved in several different activities, the need to communication becomes greater in an organization. It is of three kind –
(a) Internal Operational: -
All communication that occurs in conducting work within an organization is classified as internal operational.
(b) External Operational: -
The work related communication that organization does with people outside the organization is called external operational.
(c) Personal: -
All communication in an organization that occurs without purpose as far as business is concerned is called personal communication.
(v) Mass Communication: -
In this communication we require a mediator to transmit information. Several mass media such as journals, books, television, and newspapers, which mediate such communications.
Characteristics of mass communication –
(a) Large Reach: -
For the large reach audience scattered over wide area.
(b) Impersonality: -
The participants are unknown to each other.
(c) Presence of Gatekeeper: -
Mass communication needs additional persons, institutional or organizations to convey the message from sender to receiver.
For example : In a newspaper, the editor makes choices and decides which news makes it into the hands of the reader. The editor is, therefore, the gate keeper in the news communication process.